The Holocaust occurred in Germany and German-occupied territory from 1942 to 1945. It involved the systematic segregation, persecution, and murder of Jews, Romani, communists, homosexuals, Soviet prisoners of war, people with disabilities, and other groups deemed to be enemies of the National Socialist Party and German people or otherwise undesirable by Nazi ideology. It involved the German military (both German nationals and conscripts) and a wide-reaching bureaucratic system.
Estimates have put the total death toll of the Holocaust as high as 11 million. Jewish victims were, by far, the largest group targeted; approximately 6 million Jews were killed in total. The specific murder of Jews, separate from other groups, during this period is often referred to as the Shoah.
Smith, P. (2017). Holocaust. In P. Joseph (Ed.), The SAGE encyclopedia of war: Social science perspectives (Vol. 1, pp. 797-800). SAGE Publications, Inc., https://dx.
Women and children survivors in Mauthausen speak to an American liberator through a barbed wire fence. Photo courtesy of Col. P. Richard Seibel. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum
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