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Citing Your Sources: APA
Information on commonly used citation styles, such as MLA, APA, Chicago/Turabian, and more
The materials below are intended as supplementary material to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, Sixth Edition. Due to space and printing limitations, they are referenced from but not printed in the actual Manual.
The guidelines for paper format apply to both student assignments and manuscripts being submitted for publication to a journal. If you are using APA Style to create another kind of work (e.g., a website, conference poster, or PowerPoint presentation), you may need to format your work differently in order to optimize its presentation, for example, by using different line spacing and font sizes. Follow the guidelines of your institution or publisher to adapt APA Style formatting guidelines as needed.
APA Style provides a foundation for effective scholarly communication because it helps writers present their ideas in a clear, concise, and inclusive manner. When style works best, ideas flow logically, sources are credited appropriately, and papers are organized predictably. People are described using language that affirms their worth and dignity. Authors plan for ethical compliance and report critical details of their research protocol to allow readers to evaluate findings and other researchers to potentially replicate the studies.
The instructional aids on this page are intended for anyone looking to improve their knowledge of APA Style, particularly instructors looking to teach and students looking to learn APA Style. They include handouts, guides, and sample papers, all of which can be printed, downloaded, and used while writing your papers.
In October 2019, the American Psychological Association (APA) introduced the 7th edition of the APA Publication Manual, which replaces the 6th edition published in 2009.
In that time a lot of things have changed. Citing online material has become more common, the use of inclusive and bias-free language is increasingly important, and the technology used by researchers and students has changed.
The 7th edition addresses these changes by providing better and more extensive guidelines. This article outlines the biggest changes that you should know about.
What is a DOI?
DOI stands for Digital Object Identifier. It is a persistent, unique number that identifies a piece of online or digital information, such as a journal article, a chapter in an online book, a data set, a map, and so on. Students most often encounter DOIs when they're citing journal articles. Keep in mind that not every journal article will have a DOI assigned to it! Look for the DOI on the first page of the article, either at the top or bottom. You need to include them in your citation as they are very helpful when trying to locate the article later.